Comilla Sasson, M.D read all reviews ., David J. Magid, M.D., Paul Chan, M.D., Elisabeth D. Root, Ph.D., Bryan F. McNally, M.D., M.P.H., Arthur L. Kellermann, M.D., M.P.H., and Jason S. Haukoos, M.D. For the CARES Surveillance Group: Association of Neighborhood Characteristics with Bystander-Initiated CPR More than 300,000 cases of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest occur in the United States each year.1 Outcomes of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest vary markedly,2 with survival rates ranging from 0.2 percent in Detroit3 to 16.0 percent in Seattle.2 This variation in survival rates can be explained, in part, by different rates of bystander-initiated cardiopulmonary resuscitation .4,5 Typically, bystanders administer CPR during less than one third of most out-of-hospital cardiac arrests.6 Prior studies have shown racial or ethnic-group and socioeconomic disparities in the provision of bystander-initiated CPR.7-11 However, it is unclear to what level such disparities are due to neighborhood effects, which have been shown to exert a considerable influence in explaining variations and disparities in look after other conditions.12-15 Although a few studies have examined the effect of neighborhood on the receipt of bystander-initiated CPR during out-of-medical center cardiac arrest,6,16,17 these studies were conducted within small geographic areas and for that reason may not be generalizable to other settings.
All authors obtained, analyzed, and interpreted the info. The first two authors and the last two authors take responsibility for the integrity of the data and the accuracy of the data analysis and vouch for the fidelity of the study to the protocol. Evaluation of Aspirin Use Assessment of aspirin use in the NHS and HPFS cohorts has been described at length previously.8 In 1980, NHS participants were asked if they used aspirin generally in most weeks regularly, along with the dose and duration of use; thereafter, this information was up to date biennially . Beginning in 1986, HPFS participants were asked whether they used aspirin several times each week regularly; after 1992, details on the common dose used each full week was requested.